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ASSURE Educational Services has put-together the scheme of work on Geography – SS1, SS2 and SS3 based on the National Curriculum and the syllabus of WAEC and NECO. All the topics highlighted in the National Curriculum and the syllabus of WAEC and NECO have been accommodated in our Scheme of Work.
End of term Assessment Tests in SS1, SS2 and SS3 alongside Overall Assessment Tests are available. Schools may adopt our scheme of work because of its simplicity and ease of monitoring of academic activities.
The Scheme of Work stated below is inexhaustible. Schools are encouraged to input weeks and periods of completion of topics in accordance with the academic calendar, number of students and available classes.
SS1 Geography – 1st Term Scheme of Work
|SS1||1st Term||ELEMENT OF PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY MAPWORK||Basic Concepts In Map Reading||i. Map: Definition, Types, Examples, Uses
ii. Scale and conversion: Types, Attributes, Merit and demerit of each type
iii. Scale conversation.
|Map Distances||i. Measurements and Unit
ii. Conversion: Conversion from map distance to actual distance
iii. Conversion of actual distances to map distance
|Map Reduction and Enlargement||Map enlargement and reduction|
|Representation of Relief Forms||i. Methods of representing relief: Contour, Hill shading, Relief colouring spot heights, hachure, etc
ii. Physical features (relief): Valley, spur, Pass, Knoll. Conical hills, etc.
|Direction and Bearing||i. The major cardinal points: True and magnetic north, magnetic variations
ii. Angular bearings and compass directions
iii. Grid reference
|Interpretation of physical and Cultural Features||i. Contour lines
ii. Physical Feature: Ridges, Spurs, Valleys, Hill, Plateau, Rivers, etc.
iii. Cultural features: Roads, Settlements schools, communication lines, markets etc
SS1 Geography – 2nd Term Scheme of Work
|SS1||2nd Term||ELEMENT OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY||The Earth And The Solar System The Earth And Other Planets||i. Component of the Solar System
ii. The earth: size, shape, position in relation to the sun and other planets
|Earth’s rotation and revolution||i. Meaning of rotation and revolution
ii. Effects of rotation and revolution: day and night, axis, orbit, seasons, equinoxes, solstice, hemisphere etc.
|Latitudes and Longitudes||i. Latitude: Meaning and examples of latitude, latitude and distances, relationship with major regions of the world (tropics of cancer and capricom, Arctic and Antarctic circles).
ii. Longitude: meaning, Time and time zone, International Date Line, grid references.
|The Earth’s structure||i. Major spheres of the earth: Atmosphere, Biosphere, Lithosphere, Hydrosphere.
ii. Relationship between the three sphere
iii. Relevance to human activities
iv. Structure of the earth: Crust, mantle core
|Rocks||i. Types of Rocks: Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
ii. Characteristics of Rocks: structure, colour, texture, permeability
iii. mode of formation of the rock types
iv. Uses and importance of rocks
|Mountains||i. Types of mountains: volcanic, fold, block residual
ii. Characteristics of mountain
iii. Mode of formation of the mountains types
iv. importance of mountains: Minerals, Agriculture, communication, climatic effects
|Lowlands||i. Types of lowlands: valleys, coastal plains,
ii. Characteristics of: valleys, plains, coastal areas
iii. Mode of formation of the lowlands
iv. Importance of lowlands
SS1 Geography – 3rd Term Scheme of Work
|SS1||3rd Term||Earth’s External Processes and landforms Development||Action of running water||i. water as an energy system: Slope or gradient, shape of valley, volume of river, size of materials carried
ii. Processes of river erosion: corrosion, attrition, hydrantic action.
iii. Transportation Processes: Suspension, saltation and solution
iv. Erosional features of river: gorges, V-shaped valleys, River capture, waterfall, Cliff, meanders, Rapid and cataracts
v. Depositional features: ox-bow Lake, flood plains, Delta.
|Action of wind||i. Processes of wind erosion: Abrasion, Attrition, Deflation
ii. Features of wind erosion: Inselbergs, Rocks pedestal, zeugen, yardang, messa and sutto, etc
iii. features of wind deposition: Barchans, loess, sand dunes, etc
|Glacial Action||i. Glacial features in highland areas: Cirgue, Aretes, tarn etc
ii. Glacial features in lowland areas: Roche mountains, Craig and tail etc
iii. Economics importance of glacial features
|Action of waves||i. Waves/tide/currents (definition and characteristics)
ii. Erosional, Processes: Corrosion, attrition solution, Hydrantic action.
iii. Erosional Features: Cape, bag, cliff, caves, stack etc
iv. Coastal deposition: Beaches, spit, Bar, Marine dunes
|Earth’s Internal Process||Earthquakes||i. Origin/focus: Tremor, Epicenter wave shock waves.
ii. Cause of earthquakes: Faults from collision of tectonic plates, sudden release of stress.
iii. Region of earthquakes occurrence: Tonga region, Chile – Argentina region, Fiji Islands, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, some Asian Countries.
iv. Effects of earthquakes: Displacement of earth’s crust, Raising and lowering of coastal rocks, raising and lowering of ocean floor, land-sides and cracks, etc
|Volcanicity||i. Meaning of Volcanicity
ii. Processes: Crustal disturbance, intrusion, extrusion, eruption, emission etc
iii. Areas of volcantic activities
iv. Characteristics features of landforms in the regions.
(a) Intrusion features/landforms: sills, dyke, batholiths, laccoliths, , lapoliths, phacolipths
(b) Extrusiion feature: composite cone, lava domes or shieto volcanoes, ash and cinder cones.
|Karst (limestone) Topography||i. Karst topography regions
ii. Characteristics of Karst topography: solubility, absence of drainage, joints and rugged topography, dry surface valleys etc.
iii. Feature of Karst regions
(a) Surface features: Grikes, clints, swallow holes, sink holes, Doline, uvalo, poljes.
(b) Underground feature: Caves and cavems, lime stone gorge, resurgence or spring talactities, stalaginities, pillars
iv. Importance of Karst topography
SS2 Geography – 1st Term Scheme of Work
|SS2||1st Term||Earth’s Internal Process||Denudational process||i. Meaning
ii. Types of denudational process: weathering, mass movement
iii. Factor affecting denudation: relief, climate, human activitiesa. Weathering:
i. Major concepts: disintegration (expansion and contraction), decomposition (oxidation and contraction), weather debris etc.
ii. Types of Weathering:
(a) Physical (mechanical) weathering: temperature changes, wetting/drying, frost actions etc.
(b) Chemical weathering: solution, oxidation, hydrolysis, hydration, carbonation.
(c) Biological weathering: plants and animals, burrowing, human activities.b. Mass Movement:
i. Meaning of Mass Movement
ii. Types of Mass Movement: slow (e.g creep, soil flow), rapid (e.g landside, rock avalanche/rock fall etc)
iii. Mass Movement processes
(a) soil creep (weathered materials), gentle slope, water lubricates, heating and cooling, wetting and drying
(b) Soil flow: rock fragments, down slope, freezing thawing
(c) landsides: loose rock, steep slope, water lubricants, earthquakes etc
(d) Rock avalanche: rock fall, steep cliff etc.
iv. Effects of Mass Movement
|The Environment||i. meaning of environment
ii. Types of environment physical, social cultural
iii. Domains of the environment: Atmosphere, lithosphere, Biosphere, Hydrosphere
iv. Importance of the environment
ii. Weathering elements
iii. Weathering Record: Temperature, rain-fall, Humidity wind direction and speed etc
iv. Attributes: Variability, Aerial extent, duration, etc
v. Importance of weather
|Climate||i. Meaning of climate
ii. Element of climate
iii. Attribute: Variability, Aerial extent, duration etc.
iv. Factors affecting climate: Altitude, latitude, slope, ocean currents, cloud cover, wind, etc
v. Climate region of the world
vi. Importance of climate on physical and human activities
vii. Climate Factors: Latitude, Altitude and relief, Planetary wind pressure, Distance from the sea, ocean currents etc
viii. Climatic Types: Hot, Temperate, cold, Desert etc.
ix. Characteristics: Temperature, Rainfall etc
x. Geographic distribution
|Climate Classification||i. Greek classification: Tropical (Torrid), Temperate (Mid-latitude Polar(frigid)
ii. Koppen’s classification: Major categories:-
iii. Sub- categories of :
iv. A-AF, AM, and AW
v. B-BS and BW
vi. C-CW,CS and CF
vii. D-DF and DW
viii. E-ET and EF
v. Interpretation and characteristics of the sub-categories
vi. Geographical distribution
vii. Advantages and disadvantages of classification types
|Climate change||i. Causes of climatic change: green – house effect, ozone layer depletion, choro-floro carbon (CFC) gases, carbon emission, Deforestation, Gas Flaming etc.
ii. Consequences of climatic change: malting of ice caps, increasing temperatures, High rainfall, submergence of coastal cities, Desertification, cancer and eye cataract, Emergence of new diseases, Extinction of some plants and animals, etc.
iii. Remedies: reforestation, zero carbon emission, population reduction, introduction of gas driven cars, stop use of aerosols, legislation,etc
|Environment Resources||i. Meaning of environmental resources
ii. Types of environment resources:
(a) atmospheric resources (e.g) sun, wind, biomass, oxygen and other gasses, rain, etc
(b) water resources (e.g water falls, plants, fishes and other water animals, etc)
(c) vegetables (e.g. Timber, roots leaves, barks, latex, fruits, fibre etc)
(d) mineral resources
(e) land resources
(f) human resources
iii. Importance of environmental resources
|Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources||i. Meaning and examples of renewable and non-renewable resources
ii. Advantages and disadvantages
|Environmental Problems||i. Types and centers of environmental problems
ii. Influence of environmental problems on human activity
iii. solutions to the problem
|Environment Conversation||i. Meaning of environmental conservation
ii. Environment Conservation methods, afforestation, and reforestation, cover cropping, improved farming techniques, environmental education, recycling, legislation on waste disposal
iii. Importance of environmental conservation
SS2 Geography – 2nd Term Scheme of Work
|SS2||2nd Term||INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)||Basic concepts of GIS||i. Geographic Information System (GIS)
ii. Geographic data:
(a) Meaning/examples: Line for river, roads, rail, etc. Points for boreholes, buildings, settlement, towns, farms, etc
(b) Source (Maps, fieldwork, satellite-images, etc.)
iii. Importance/Uses of geo-referencing, geographic data and GIS
|Components of GIS||i. Hardware component: Digitizer, Global positioning system (Ups), computer, printer, scanner, etc
ii. software for: Data input, storage, Retrieval, manipulation
iii. Data: Positional, relational
iv. procedures: Sets of Rules
v. Peoples: Experts
|GIS Data||Data Sources: Land surveying, remote sensing, map digitizing, map scanning, field investigation, tabular data etc|
|Satellite Remote Sensing||i. Definition of concepts: Remote sensing satellite, Satellite remote sensing
ii. Application of satellite remote sensing: foresting, environment, Agriculture, Telecommunications Transportation emergency responses etc
iii. Relationship between GIS and remote sensing
|GIS Application||i. Areas of use: Defence, agriculture, Urban development, mapping, surveying, transportation, census
ii. Problems with GIS implementations in Nigeria: power, personnel, capital (cost of hardware and software).
|FIELD PROJECT||A. Land use
B. Industrial activities
C. Traffic flow
D. Market survey
E. Patterns of journey to work
F. Rate of erosion in the locality etc.
|REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF NIGERIA||Nigeria||i. Location and position: latitude, Longitude, boundaries and nieghbours
ii. size and distance: North to South, East to West
iii. Political division: states and their capitals, local governments and their headquarters
|Physical Setting of Nigeria||i. Relief: Highlands and lowlands, drainage (major rivers, river basins etc)
ii. Climate (the Seasons)
iii. Vegetation belts (savannah, forest belts)
|Population of Nigeria||i. Population size, distribution and structure
ii. Population quality
iii. Population movement
iv. Population data
|Resources of Nigeria||i. Mineral Resources: Petroleum, gas, coal, tin, iron, ore, limestone
ii. Power: Petroleum, gas, coal, hydro electric power (HEP), solar energy
iii. Water resources (rivers, lakes, dams, sea, underground water)
iv. Vegetation: resources/importance: forest, savannah
|Agriculture||i. Types of Agricultural Practice: subsistence, mechanized, pastoral farming, crop rotation, mixed farming, shifting cultivation
ii. food and cash crops
iii. Importance of Agriculture
iv. Problems of Agriculture in Nigeria
|Transport and Communication In Nigeria||i. Transportation
(a) modes of transportation: road, rail, water, air transport, pipe, aerial ropeways, human and animal porterage
(b) Advantages and disadvantages of the different transportation modes
(c) problems of Transportation
(d) influence of transportation on human Activitiesii. Communication in Nigeria:
(a) communication Network: Telecommunication (e.g. Telephone service, cellular phones, Voice mails etc), Postal service, Television, Radio, Newspaper, Internet
(b) advantages and disadvantages of the different communication elements
(c) Problems of communication in Nigeria
(d) importance of Transport/ communication
|Manufacturing Industries in Nigeria||i. Definition of Industry
ii. Types of Industry: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
iii. Major Industrial zones
iv. Factors affecting location of industries
|Commercial Activities in Nigeria||i. Major Commercial activities:
(a) trade: Local, National, International, stock exchange, capital market, FOREX
ii. Major commercial areas in Nigeria
iii. Importance of commercial activities
|ECOWAS||i. Meaning of ECOWAS
ii. Member Countries
iii. Purpose/Mandate of ECOWAS
iv. Advantages and disadvantages
v. Problem of ECOWAS
vi. Solutions to ECOWAS problems
SS2 Geography – 3rd Term Scheme of Work
|SS2||3rd Term||ECONOMICS AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHY||Transportation||i. Modes of transportation: Road, Rail, water, pipeline, cable etc
ii. Transportation means
iii. Merits and demerits of each type
iv. Importance: Movement of people and commodities, National and international trade, Transfer of ideas and technology, National integration
v. Transportation problems
|Industry||i. Classification of industries
(a) primary, secondary, tertiary Qua temary
(b) heavy industry, light industry
ii. Factors affecting industrial location, raw, materials, market, capital, etc.
iii. Problems of industrial location
|Population||i. World Population: size, distribution density, structure.
ii. Factors affecting population distribution: Climate, Relief, soil, water, mineral, etc.
|Settlements||i. Types of Settlements: Urban, rural
ii. Characteristics of urban and settlements: Population, economy, Administration etc.
iii. Factors of settlement location (soil, weather, etc.)
iv. Settlement Patterns: Nuclear, Dispersed scattered); Linear, isolated, conurbation
v. Factors of development of each pattern
|Settlement Interactions||i. Types of interactions: Commercial, cultural, Administrative, etc.
ii. Interaction pattern: Rural-rural, urban-rural, urban-urban, etc
|Geo-Political Issues (Land Reclamation)||i. Meaning of land reclamation
ii. Reclamation methods: Afforestation construction of barriers, sand filling, construction of drainages, control of erosion heads, etc
iii. Importance of land reclamation
|Trade||i. Definition of Trade
ii. Types of trade: National, International
iii. Reasons for trade
iv. Importance of trade
v. Importance of trade: Social, Political, Economic
|Tourism||ii. Meaning of Tourism
iii. Tourist centre
iv. Justification for tourism: Leisure, recreation, education
v. Importance of tourism
vi. Problems of tourism
SS3 Geography – 1st & 2nd Term Scheme of Work – Practicals (Map Reading)/Revision