Biology – SS1, SS2 & SS3 Curriculum; Scheme of Work; Assessment Tests

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ASSURE Educational Services has put-together the scheme of work on Biology  – SS1, SS2 and SS3 based on the National Curriculum and the syllabus of WAEC and NECO. All the topics highlighted in the National Curriculum and the syllabus of WAEC and NECO have been accommodated in our Scheme of Work.

End of term Assessment Tests in SS1, SS2 and SS3 alongside Overall Assessment Tests are available. Schools may adopt our scheme of work because of its simplicity and ease of monitoring of academic activities.

The Scheme of Work stated below is inexhaustible. Schools are encouraged to input weeks and periods of completion of topics in accordance with the academic calendar, number of students and available classes.

SS1 Biology – 1st Term Scheme of Work

Class Term Main Topic Sub-Topics Contents
SS1 1st Term Concept of Living Living and non-living things Classification of objects into living and non-­living, giving examples of each group. Viruses should be mentioned as a link between living and non living things.
Classification of living
things into Kingdoms:
Monera, Protoctista (Protista), Fungi, Plantae, Animalia.
Kingdom Monera (Prokaryotes), single-celled, motile or non-motile organisms without definite nucleus e.g. bacteria and blue-green algae.

Major characteristics of the major phyla of Kingdoms Protoctista and Fungi.

Kingdom Protista (Eukaryotes), single-celled, motile or non-motile organisms. Cell structure complex with definite nucleus e.g. Chlamydomonas, Amoeba.
Major phyla of Kingdom Protoctista include: Rhizopoda, Zoomastigina, Apicomplexa, Ciliophora, Euglenophyta, Oomycota, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta.

Kingdom Fungi (Eukaryotes), mainly non-motile organisms composed of hyphae containing nuclei e.g. moulds, mushrooms and Rhizopus.
Major phyla of Kingdom Fungi include: Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

Kingdom Plantae (Eukaryotes), mainly multicellular non-motile organisms which contain chlorophyll that enable them to photosynthesize e.g. mosses, ferns, pines, oil palms and yam plants.
Characteristics of the major divisions and classes: Bryophyta (Hepaticae, Musci), Lycopodophyta, Filicinophyta, Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta and Angiospermophyta (Monocotyledoneae and Dicotyledoneae).

Kingdom Animalia (Eukaryotes), multicellular motile organisms that feed on other organisms e.g. corals, worms, insects, snails, fishes, frogs, snakes, monkeys cows.
Characteristics of the major phyla and classes of Kingdom Animalia.
The external features of the following organisms should be mentioned: cockroach, butterfly, Tilapia, toad/frog, lizard, domestic fowl/pigeon.

Differences between plants and animals.
Organization of life Levels of organization (i) cell (single-celled organisms): Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium
(ii) Tissue: Hydra
(iii) Organ (storage organ) bulb, rhizome and heart.
(iv) System/Organ System: In mammals, flowering plants – reproductive system, excretory system etc.
Complexity of organization
in higher organisms
Advantages and disadvantages;
The significance of different levels of organization including volume/surface area ratio should be mentioned.
Forms in which living cells exist Single and free-living Amoeba, Paramecium,
Euglena, and
Colony Volvox
Filament Spirogyra
Part of a living organism Cheek cells, onion root tip
cells and epidermis of fleshy

SS1 Biology 1st Term Lesson Notes
Lesson One: Concept of Living – Click Here!
Lesson Two: Organisation of Life – Click Here!
Lesson Three: Classification of Living Things – Click Here!
Evaluation Tests On SS1 Biology 1st Term Lesson Notes – Click Here!

SS1 Biology – 2nd Term Scheme of Work

Class Term Main Topic Sub-Topics Contents
SS1 2nd Term The Cell and its Environment Cell structure and functions of cell components Cell structure should include: Cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, cytoplasmic organelles: mitochondria, lysosomes, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, centrosomes, Golgi bodies, chromosomes. The function performed by organelles should be known.
Similarities and differences between plant and animal cells.
Physical and Biophysical processes (a) diffusion
(b) osmosis
(c) active transport
Haemolysis, plasmolysis, turgidity and crenation should be mentioned
Properties and functions of the living cell (a) Nutrition
(i) Autotrophic (photosynthesis)
(ii) Heterotrophic (holozoic)
Nutrition in Euglena, Chlamydomonas and Spirogyra should be mentioned.
Nutrition in Amoeba and Paramecium should be mentioned.(b) Cellular respiration
Definition and processes of:
(i) aerobic respiration
(ii) anaerobic respiration
(iii) energy release(c) Excretion
(i) Excretion in single-celled aquatic
organisms. Diffusion by body surface
and by contractile vacuole.
(ii) Waste products of metabolism.
Reference should be made to carbon dioxide, water and ammonia as examples of waste products(d) Growth
(i) Basis of growth – cell division
(mitosis), enlargement and
(ii) Aspects of growth:
Increase in dry weight, irreversible
increase in size and length and increase
in number of cells.
(iii) Regions of fastest growth in
(iv) Influence of growth hormones and
(v) Growth curvatures (Tropisms)(e) Development: Enlargement
and differentiation.
(f) Movement
(i) Organelles for movement: cilia and
(ii) Cyclosis.(g) Reproduction:
Types of reproduction.
(i) Asexual: fission, budding and vegetative propagation.
(ii) Sexual: Conjugation, formation of male and female gametes (gametogenesis), fusion of gametes fertilization)
Tissues and supporting systems (a) Skeleton and supporting systems in animals
(i) Biological significance.
(ii) Skeletal materials, e.g. bone, cartilage and chitin.
(iii) Types of skeleton:exoskeleton, endoskeleton and hydrostatic skeleton.
(iv) Bones of the vertebral column, girdles and long bones of the appendicular skeleton.
(v) Mechanism of support in animals.
(vi) Functions of skeleton in animals: Protection, support, locomotion and respiratory movement.(b) Different types of supporting tissues in plants.
(i) Main features of supporting tissues in plants.
(ii) Functions of supporting tissues in plants: strength, rigidity (resistance against the forces of the wind and water), flexibility and resilience.
NB: The different types of supporting tissues: turgid parenchyma, collenchyma, xylem (wood) sclerenchyma should be studied.

SS1 Biology – 3rd Term Scheme of Work

Class Term Main Topic Sub-Topics Contents
SS1 3rd Term The Cell and its Environment Transport System (a) Need for transport:
(i) surface area/volume ratio.
(ii) substances have to move greater
distances.(b) Transport in animals.
(i) Structure of the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries.
(ii) Composition and function of
blood and lymph.
(iii) Materials for transport:
excretory products, gases,
digested food, and other
nutrients.(c) Transport in plants
(i) Uptake and movement of water and mineral salts in plants.
(ii) Translocation
NB: Movement of organic materials from leaves to roots. Basic theories (Pressure flow hypothesis and cytoplasmic streaming) underlying translocation. Ringing experiment to demonstrate that transport of synthesized organic nutrients occurs  through the phloem.
(iii) Transpiration
NB: Advantages and disadvantages of transpiration. Types of transpiration. Environmental factors affecting transpiration. Determination of the rate of transpiration.
(iv) Movement of water to the apex of trees and herbs.
NB: Physiological factors affecting the rise of water in the xylem: Root pressure, transpiration, cohesion- tension mechanism, adhesion, water potential gradient. Experiments to measure the rate of transpiration.
Respiratory System (a) Body surface: cutaneous, gills and lungs.
(b) Mechanisms of gaseous exchange in fish, toad, mammals and plants.
Respiratory organs of insects should be mentioned.
Excretory Systems and Mechanisms Types of excretory systems: Kidney, stomata and lenticels
NB: Explanation of the concept of excretion in plants. Excretory products of plants (water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, alkaloids, tannins, gums, resins and acids)
Regulation of Internal Environment (Homeostasis) (a) Kidney: Structure and functions
(b) Liver: Functions of the liver.
(c) The skin: Structure and function.
Hormonal Coordination (a) Animal hormones:
Site of secretion, functions and effects of over and under-secretion.
NB: Endocrine glands: pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads and their secretions should be mentioned. The stages in the metamorphosis of toad and the role of thyroxine should be mentioned.
(b) Plant hormones
NB: The effects of auxins on lateral bud development, leaf fall and initiation of adventitious roots should be mentioned.
Reference to crop harvesting, growth and weed control should be made.

SS2 Biology – 1st Term Scheme of Work

Class Term Main Topic Sub-Topics Contents
SS2 1st Term The Cell and its Environment Nervous Coordination (a) The central nervous system
(i) Components of the central nervous system
(ii) Parts of the brain and their functions; cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and their functions
(iii) Structure and function of the Spinal Cord.
(b) Peripheral Nervous System.
(i) Somatic Nervous System
(ii) Autonomic nervous system.
(iii) Structure and functions of the neurone.
(iv) Classification of neurones.
(c) Types of nervous actions
(i) The reflex arc
(ii) Reflex and voluntary actions
(iii) Differences between reflex and voluntary actions.
(iv) Conditioned reflex and its role on behaviour.
Sense Organs Structure and function of the
(a) Eye.
(b) Ear.
Enumerate conditioned reflexes such as salivation, driving a car, walking and swimming.
Examine the mammalian eye noting the shape, colour and positions of the optic muscle and optic nerve.
Mention should be made of eye defects and their corrections.
Reproductive system of mammals (i) Structure and function of male and female reproductive systems.
(ii) Differences between male and female reproductive organs.
(iii) Structure of the gametes
(sperm and ovum)
(iv) Fertilization, development of the embryo and birth.
(v) Birth control(b) Metamorphosis in insects, life histories of butterfly and cockroach.
(c) Comparison of reproduction
in fish, amphibian, reptile, bird
and mammal.
(d) Reproduction in flowering
(i) Arrangements of floral parts of a named insect-pollinated flower and a named wind-pollinated flower.
(ii) Structure and function of the male and female parts of a flower.(e) Pollination in Plants
(i) Types of pollination
(ii) Features of cross-pollinated and self-pollinated flowers
(iii) Agents of Pollination
(iv) Kinds of placentation: axile, marginal
and parietal.(f) Process of development of
zygote in flowering plants: Fertilization.(g) (i) Types of fruits (classification).
(ii) Structure of fruits(h) Dispersal of fruits and seeds: Agents of dispersal

SS2 Biology – 2nd Term Scheme of Work

Class Term Main Topic Sub-Topics Contents
SS2 2nd Term Plant and Animal Nutrition Plant Nutrition (a) Photosynthesis:
(i) Process of photosynthesis and its chemical equation
(ii) Light and dark reactions
(iii) Materials and conditions.
necessary for photosynthesis
(iv) Evidence of photosynthesis(b) Mineral requirement of plants
(i) Mineral nutrition: Macro and micro-nutrients
(ii) Soil and atmosphere as sources of mineral elements.
Animal Nutrition (a) Food substances; classes and sources
(b) Balanced diet and its importance
(c ) Food tests
(d) Digestive enzymes: Classes, characteristics and functions
(e) Modes of Nutrition
(i) Autotrophic: Photosynthesis,
(ii) Heterotrophic: holozoic, parasitic,
symbiotic and saprophytic.
(f) Alimentary System:
Alimentary tract of different animals.
(g) Dental Formula
(h) Feeding in protozoa and mammals
Basic Ecological Concepts Ecosystem Components of the ecosystem and sizes
(a) Ecological components:
environment, biosphere, habitat, population, biotic community and ecosystem.
(b) Components of the ecosystem:
Biotic and abiotic
Ecological factors Ecological factors in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems
Simple Measurement of Ecological Factors. (a) Physical factors: Climatic, topographic and gaseous.
(b) Edaphic factors: Chemical and physical composition, moisture content and soil
NB: measure some of the ecological factors including humidity, temperature, wind speed, rainfall and light intensity.
Food webs and trophic levels (a) Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
(i) Producers: autotrophs
(ii) Consumers: heterotrophs
(iii) Decomposers(b) Trophic levels energy
(i) Food chain
(ii) Food web(c) Energy flow
(i) Food/Energy relationship in aquatic and terrestrial environment.
(ii) Pyramid of energy and Pyramid of numbers.(d) Decomposition in nature
(i) Decomposers:
(micro and macro-decomposers)
(ii) Gaseous products
(iii) Role of decomposers
Ecology of population (a) Ecological succession
(i) Structural changes in species composition, variety or diversity and increase in numbers.
(ii) General characteristics and outcomes of succession(b) Primary succession.
Succession in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.(c) Secondary succession, climax
of the succession: characteristic
of a stable ecosystem.(d) Factors that affect population
size: natality, mortality,
emigration, immigration, food
shortage, predation,competition and
diseases.(e) Preservation and storage of foods(f) The life of selected insects;
(i) Weevils and cotton strainers.
(ii) Control of pests

SS2 Biology – 3rd Term Scheme of Work

Class Term Main Topic Sub-Topics Contents
SS2 3rd Term Basic Ecological Concepts Microorganisms: Man and health (a) Carriers of microorganisms

(b) Microorganisms in action
(i) Beneficial effects in nature, medicine and industries.
(ii) Harmful effects of micro¬organisms, diseases caused by microorganisms: cholera, measles, malaria and ring worm.

(c) Towards better Health
(i) Methods of .controlling harmful microorganisms: high temperature, antibiotics, antiseptics, high salinity and dehydration.
(ii) Ways of controlling the vectors.

(d) Public Health:
The importance of the following towards the maintenance of good health practices:(i) Refuse and sewage disposal.
(ii) Immunization, vaccination
and inoculation (control of diseases).

Conservation of Natural Resources Resources to be conserved: soil, water, wildlife, forest and minerals. The meaning and need for conservation of natural resources should be mentioned.
Ways of ensuring conservation Problems of conservation should be mentioned in relation to economic and social development, overgrazing and poaching.

The following should be studied:
(a) agencies responsible for conservation
(b) conservation education
(c) conservation laws
(d) benefits of conservation.

Variation in Population Morphological variations in the physical appearance of individuals (a) size, height and weight
(b) colour (skin, eye, hair coat of animals)
(c) finger prints
Physiological Variations (a) Ability to roll tongue
(b) Ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)
(c) Blood groups (ABO) classification)

SS3 Biology – 1st Term Scheme of Work

Class Term Main Topic Sub-Topics Contents
SS3 1st Term Biology of Heredity (Genetics) Genetic terminologies Definition of the following basic genetic terms such as gene, genotype, phenotype, dominant, recessive, allele, locus, test cross, and back cross.
Transmission and expression of characteristics in organisms. (a) Hereditary variation
(b) Mendel’s work in genetics
(i) Mendel’s experiments
(ii) Mendelian traits
(iii) Mendelian laws
Chromosomes: The basis of heredity (a) Structure
(b) Process of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring.
Reference should be made to dominant and recessive characters in plants and animals
Probability in genetics (Hybrid formation).
Linkage, sex determination and sex linked characters. Explanation of the terms linkage, sex determination and sex linked characters such as haemophilia, colour blindness, baldness and hairy ear lobes

Examples of new varieties of crops and livestock obtained through cross-breeding should be mentioned. The advantages and disadvantages of cross-fertilization, out and inbreeding should be explained.

Application of the principles of heredity in: (a) Agriculture
(b) MedicineThe application of knowledge of heredity in marriage counseling with particular reference to sickle cell anaemia and rhesus factor should be mentioned.
Adaptation for survival and Evolution Behavioural Adaptations in Social Animals (a) Termites
(b) BeesThe division of labour in social insects and the roles of different castes should be stressed. Examples of communication among animals such as contact notes and warning cries should be mentioned. Reference should be made to basking by lizard, territorial behaviour in birds and lizards and behaviour of other animals under unfavourable conditions-hibernation and aestivation. The behaviour of an organism as a member of a group and the effect of grouping on the behaviour of an organism should be mentioned.
Evolution. (a) Evidence of evolution.
(b) Theories of evolutionThe role of mutation in evolution should be mentioned.The following evidence of evolution should be mentioned: Paleontology (fossil records), comparative biochemistry, geographical distribution, comparative anatomy and physiology, adaptive radiation, comparative embryology and systematics.The contributions of Lamarck and Darwin to the development of the theory of evolution should be mentioned.

SS3 Biology – 2nd Term Scheme of Work (Practical Class)

Class Term Main Topic Sub-Topics Contents
SS3 2nd Term Practical Biology Concept of Living 1. Cell theory

2. Irritability as a basic characteristic of protoplasm
(a) Types of responses: taxis and nastism
(b) Environmental factors that evoke responses; temperature, pH etc

3. Excretory Systems
(a) Diseases of the kidney:
Nephritis, kidney stone and diuresis, Their effects and remedies.
(b) Diseases of the liver: infective hepatitis, cancer of the liver and gall stones. Their effects and remedies.

4. Sense organs.
(a) Nose.
(b) Tongue.
(c) The skin.

5. Reproduction
(a) Courtship behaviour in animals:
(i) Pairing
(ii) Display e.g. peacocks
(iii) Territoriality
(iv) Seasonal migration associated with breeding in herrings, eels and birds.
(b) Metamorphosis and life history of housefly.
(c) Adaptive features in a developing animal:
(i) Yolk in egg of fish, toad and birds for nourishment
(ii) Placenta in animals
(d) Germination of seeds
(i) Essential factors which affect developing embryo.
(ii) Types of germination

Plant and Animal Nutrition 1. Nitrogen cycle

2. Modes of nutrition:
autotrophic, chemosynthetic, carnivorous plants

3. Alimentary System
(a) Alimentary tracts of different animals
(b) Description and function of various parts.

4. Feeding habits
(a) Categories: Carnivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous
(b) Modifications and mechanisms associated with the following habits; filter feeding, fluid feeding, feeding adaptation in insects, saprophytic feeding, parasitic feeding etc.

Basic Ecological Concepts 1. Ecological Components:
Lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, niche2.Population Studies by Sampling
(a) Population size
(b) Dominance
(c) Density3. Energy transformation in nature:
(a) Energy loss in the ecosystem
(b) Solar radiation: its intake and loss at the earth’s surface.
(c ) Energy loss in the biosphere.4. Nutrient Cycling in Nature
(a) Carbon Cycle:
(i) Process of carbon cycle
(ii) Importance of carbon in nature.(b) Water Cycle:
(i) Importance of water cycle,
(ii) Importance of water to living organisms.5. Ecological Management: Tolerance, Minimum and maximum range6. Habitats
(a) Aquatic habitat: marine, estuarine fresh water under the following headings:
(i) characteristics of habitat
(ii) distribution of plants and animals in the habitat,
(iii) adaptive features of plants and animals in the habitat.
(b) Terrestrial habitat: marsh, forest, grass land, arid land should be studied under the following headings:
(i) characteristics of habitat
(ii) distribution of plants and animals in habitat.
(c) Balance in Nature
Dynamic equilibrium population and
population density.7. Relevance of Biology to Agriculture:
(a) Classification of plants based on life cycle
(b) Effects of agricultural practices on ecology
(i) Bush burning
(ii) Tillage
(iii) Fertilizer
(iv) Herbicide/pesticide
(v) Different farming methods8. Microorganisms: Man and His Health.
(a) Microorganisms around us
(i) Microorganisms in air and water
(ii) Groups of microorganisms: bacteria, viruses, some algae, protozoa and some fungi.
(b) Microorganisms in our bodies and food
(c) Public Health
Food hygiene and health organization.
Application of Variations 1. Crime detection
2. Blood transfusion
3. Determination of paternity
Evolution 1. Adaptation for survival
(a) Factors that bring about competition
(b) Intra and Inter-species competition
(c) Relationship between competition and succession2. Structural Adaptation for;
(a) obtaining food
(b) protection and defense
(c) securing mates for reproduction
(d) regulating body temperature
(e) conserving water3. Adaptive Colouration
(a) Plants and animals
(b) Colouration and their functions

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