Hello and welcome!
ASSURE Educational Services has put-together the scheme of work on Animal Husbandry – SS1, SS2 and SS3 based on the National Curriculum and the syllabus of WAEC and NECO. All the topics highlighted in the National Curriculum and the syllabus of WAEC and NECO have been accommodated in our Scheme of Work.
End of term Assessment Tests in SS1, SS2 and SS3 alongside Overall Assessment Tests are available. Schools may adopt our scheme of work because of its simplicity and ease of monitoring of academic activities.
The Scheme of Work stated below is inexhaustible. Schools are encouraged to input weeks and periods of completion of topics in accordance with the academic calendar, number of students and available classes.
SS1 Animal Husbandry (1st Term Scheme of Work)
|SS1||1st Term||LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
||(1) Importance of farm animals.||– source of food(meat, milk, eggs, honey etc);
– raw materials e.g. hide and skin, bones, hooves, hair/fur, egg shells;
– source of manure (fertilizer, bio-gas, bio fuel), growing of maggots and earthworms;
– source of feed ingredients- blood meal, bone meal, meat and bone meal, snail shell, egg shell, feathers etc;
– animal power (animal traction, transportation);
– research (laboratory, field), drugs, vaccines, hormones etc;
– source of employment;
– sales of products and by-products;
– social functions e.g. payment of bride price, cultural displays (weddings);
– for security e.g. ducks, bees, turkeys;
– as pets e.g. rabbits, sheep, chickens;
– sports and games e.g. horse racing, chicken fighting;
– religious festivals e.g. turkeys, rams etc;
– source of foreign exchange through export of animal products and by-products.
|(2) Classification of farm animals.||(a) Classification of farm animals.
(i) Simple stomach (non- ruminant or monogastric). e.g. poultry (avian), pig (swine), rabbits, horses, donkeys, snails, bees, grasscutters;
(ii) Complex stomach (polygastric or ruminants) i.e. cattle, sheep and goat.(b) Identification of ruminants and non-ruminants.
(i) external features of common ruminants and non-ruminants;
(ii) differences should be based on type of stomach and type of feed consumed.
SS1 Animal Husbandry (2nd Term Scheme of Work)
|(3) Internal organs and their functions in farm animals.||Identification of internal organs of farm animals e.g. (liver, lungs, heart, kidney, spleen, pancreas, stomach, crop, caecum, gizzard, small intestine, large intestine, tongue etc, and their functions.|
|(4) Body systems and their functions in farm animals||Discussions should include digestive, respiratory, nervous, circulatory, skeletal, reproductive systems. Students are expected to understand the functions of each system.|
SS1 Animal Husbandry (3rd Term Scheme of Work)
|SS1||3rd Term||LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
||(5) Reproduction in farm animals||(a) Definition of terms used in livestock reproduction.
Discussion should include ovulation, oestrus cycle, heat period, signs of heat, mating, gestation, parturition, lactation, colostrum, flushing, steaming up, dystocia, vaginal prolapse etc.(b) Reproduction in livestock(mammals).
Discussion should include detection of heat, mating systems, pregnancy detection and signs of parturition.(c) Reproduction in poultry.
Knowledge of the process of egg formation in poultry is required.(d) Reproductive hormones and their functions.
Sources and roles of female hormones (oestrogen, progesterone, relaxin, oxytocin etc) and male hormones (testosterone/androgen)(e) Management of pregnant farm animals.
regular and adequate feeding, body exercise, steaming up, separation from male animals, provision of clean and adequate water and administration of drugs where necessary, dipping to eliminate ecto-parasites, parturition etc
|(6) Livestock management systems.||livestock management systems: intensive, semi-intensive and extensive system, advantages and disadvantages of each of the systems|
|(7) Management practices of livestock.||Housing requirements for each of the farm animals and students are expected to have the knowledge of the use of local materials for construction of the animal houses.
Understanding of other management practices: feeding, sanitation, hygiene, castration, dehorning, deworming, vaccination, inoculation, culling, debeaking, smoking (in bees), docking (detailing), means of identification of farm animals (tattooing, branding, ear-notching, rings etc), isolation, weaning, care of the young animal until they are weaned etc, is essential. Simple record keeping including income and expenditure accounts is necessary. Importance of each of these practices should be discussed. Discussion should also include the management practices from birth to maturity of a named large ruminant, small ruminant, poultry, pigs, grasscutter, bees and snails.
SS2 Animal Husbandry (1st Term Scheme of Work)
|SS2||1st Term||ANIMAL NUTRITION||(1) Meaning and classes of animal feeds.||Meaning of animal nutrition, feed nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oil, vitamins, minerals and water), their functions and sources and their deficiencies in farm animals. Students should also be exposed to classification of animal feeds into concentrates, roughages, supplements, feed additives etc.|
|(2) Animal feeds and feeding – Livestock rations||Livestock rations and types (balanced, maintenance, production rations. Malnutrition: meaning, causes, symptoms and practical ways to check malnutrition such as feeding balanced rations to animals, feeding weaker animals separately, deworming animals, giving supplementary feeds, addition of feed additives to stimulate appetite, protecting animals from toxic plants and harmful substances, adjusting stocking rates appropriately, provision of good quality and adequate water etc|
|(3) Formulation of livestock rations.||Practical diet formulations for the different classes of farm animals (starter, grower and finisher diets). Students should be able to identify different feed ingredients used for diet formulations e.g. blood meal, fish meal, cotton seed cake, oyster shell, groundnut cake, maize grains, salt, premix, glycine etc. Factors to consider in feed formulation for farm animals e.g. physiological status of animal, species, age, body weight, production target, acceptability of feed, nutrient composition of the feed, ingredient availability, cost of feed ingredients etc,|
|(4) Processing and marketing of animal products.||(a) Processing techniques for different farm animal products.
The processing techniques to include; pre-slaughtering, slaughtering and post-slaughtering activities. Hygienic conditions in processing are also important. Students should understand slaughtering techniques for different farm animals. Students should also be exposed to processing of animal products e.g. egg, milk, meat, skin, wool, honey, snail shell and feathers, fur, hooves, horns, blood, faeces/droppings into other forms (value addition).(b) Marketing of animal products.
Understanding of common marketing channels and agents such as producers, wholesalers, retailers, consumers etc is required. Advantages and disadvantages of each marketing channel and agent
SS2 Animal Husbandry (2nd Term Scheme of Work)
|SS2||2nd Term||PASTURE AND RANGE MANAGEMENT||(1) Pasture management||(a) Meaning and importance of pasture and forage crops.
definition, examples and importance of pasture and forage crops(b) Types of pasture and forage crops.
Understanding of the types and features of pasture and forage crops(c) Terminologies in pasture management.
Knowledge of basic terminologies in pasture management
|(2) Rangeland improvement.||(a) Meaning and characteristics of rangelands.
Understanding of the meaning and features of rangeland(b) Methods of rangeland improvement.
Knowledge of methods of rangeland improvement (reseeding, rotational grazing, controlled stocking, deferred grazing, controlled burning, fertilizer application, pest control, disease control etc
Knowledge of the role of rangeland in livestock production e.g. provision of vegetable and grasses for animals, exercise, provision of hay and silage etc
SS2 Animal Husbandry (3rd Term Scheme of Work)
|SS2||3rd Term||ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT||(1) Animal improvement.||(a) Meaning of animal improvement
Understanding of the meaning and terminologies used in animal improvement(b) Aims/importance of farm animal improvement
Knowledge of aims: high reproductive efficiency, potency, mothering ability, cool temperament, high libido, resistance to pests, resistance to diseases, tolerance to harsh environment
|(2) Methods of farm animal improvement.||(a) Methods used in farm animal improvement.
Various methods used in farm animal improvement: introduction, selection and breeding(b) Merits and demerits of methods used in farm animal improvement.
Understand merits and demerits of each method used in farm animal improvement.
|(3) Artificial insemination.||(a) Meaning of artificial insemination.
(b) Methods of artificial insemination.
Identification of materials, methods, steps and precautions in carrying out artificial insemination
(c) Advantages of artificial insemination.
SS3 Animal Husbandry (1st Term Scheme of Work)
|SS3||1st Term||ANIMAL HEALTH||(1) Farm animal diseases and pathogens.||(a) Concept of farm animal disease.
Meaning and causal agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa) of diseases in farm animals
(b) General symptoms of diseases in farm animals.
Signs of a sick animal e.g. loss of appetite, loss of weight, diarrhoea, high body temperature, blood stained urine, gnashing of teeth, discharges from natural openings, blood stained feaces, ruffled feathers or fur, standing hair, undue noise, excessive salivation, anaemia, staggering gait, difficulty in breathing, coma, sudden death etc.
(c) Diseases of farm animals, prevention and control.
Identify the main diseases of farm animals, their causal agents, mode of transmission and symptoms is required. Simple preventive and control measures including the use of antibiotics and ethno veterinary practices.
(d) Factors predisposing farm animals to diseases.
factors that predispose farm animals to diseases e.g. poor nutrition, poor health status, poor sanitation, inadequate bio security, overcrowding, unfavourable weather conditions, low immunity etc
|(2) Livestock parasites and pests.||(a) Livestock parasites
Understanding of the meaning, classes, control/prevention and effects of parasites on farm animals is required. Discussion to include life cycles of the parasites. Ability to identify and understand economic importance of ecto-parasites (ticks, lice, mites, fleas etc.) and endo-parasites (tapeworm, roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, liver fluke, trypanosome etc)
(b) Livestock pests.
Knowledge of livestock pests (rodents, snakes, soldier ants, birds, weevils, termites, flies etc), prevention/control using dewormers, acaricides, pesticides and ethno veterinary practices, and effects of pests on farm animals will be assessed. Ability to identify and knowledge of economic importance of storage pests (rodents, weevils, termites, cockroaches etc), field pests (soldier ants, birds, snakes flies etc)
SS3 Animal Husbandry (2nd Term Scheme of Work) – Practical Class ONLY
|SS3||2nd Term||ANIMAL HUSBANDRY (PRACTICALS)||(1) Products and by-products of farm animals.||Ability to identify and knowledge of the uses of animal products and by-products such as meat, eggs, milk, honey, hides, skin, blood, hair, wool, feathers, horn, hooves, bones, snail shell, animal dung etc. will be assessed.|
|(2) Identification of farm animals.||Ability to describe, draw and label the external parts of farm animals will be assessed.|
|(3) Internal organs and their functions in farm animals.||Ability to identify and draw the major internal structures in the various body systems of a named ruminant, poultry and pig is required. Differences in the structures and their functions will also be assessed.|
|(4) Tools and equipment used in management of farm animals.||Ability to identify the following tools and the equipment used in animal management practices is required e.g: Housing (head pan, trowel, shovel/spade, hammer, pincers, pliers, spanner, screw driver etc), Brooding (coal pots, kerosene stoves, hurricane lantern, electric bulb, hoover, chick feeder, flat trays, chick drinker, brood guard/surround, thermometer, hygrometer etc), Feeding (feeders, drinkers, weighing scale etc), Identification (branding iron, ear clips, neck chains, marker, ear notcher, indelible ink etc), Debeaking (debeaking machine, sharp knife, heater etc), Castration (surgical blade/scalpel, burdizzo, elastrator, elastic ring, cotton wool, suture needle, suture thread etc ), Handling ( krawl, restraining ropes, wooden rod- sanda, pad, nose ring, etc), Dehorning (iron saw, knife/cutlass etc), Incubation (incubator, hatcher, chick box, egg tray, humidifier, candler,), Milking (cheese cloth, milking machine, milking chute, milk testing cup, drenching bottle, milking pails, buckets etc), Slaughtering (cutlass, knife, stunning gun, electric shocker, defeathering machine, eviscerator, conveyor, weighing scale, blast freezer, cold rooms); Pasture and forage crops (sickle, knife/cutlass, harvesters, silo etc). The maintenance of these tools and equipment should be discussed.|
|(5) Feeds and feedstuffs||Ability to identify and knowledge of uses of feeds and feedstuffs such as common feed ingredients (maize, groundnut cake, soya bean meal, palm kernel cake, fish meal, bone meal, oyster shell, limestone, salt, salt lick, premix, wheat offal etc), crop residues, agricultural by-products and non-conventional(jack bean, rumen digesta, cassava peel etc) and the major nutrients they contain will be assessed.|
|(6) Pasture and forage crops.||Ability to identify and the knowledge of uses of common pasture and forage crops are required. Hay and silage making should be discussed.|
|(7) Artificial insemination||Ability to identify the tools and equipment and their uses are required. Simple techniques of semen collection, preservation and insemination should be discussed.|
|(8) Pests and parasites of farm animals.||(a) Pests of farm animals.
Ability to identify and knowledge of the economic importance of storage pests (rodents, weevils, termites, cockroaches etc), field pests (soldier ants, birds, snakes, flies etc) are required.
(b) Parasites of farm animals.
Ability to identify and knowledge of economic importance of ectoparasites (ticks, lice, mites, fleas etc) and endoparasites (tapeworm, roundworms, hook worm, pin worm, liver fluke, trypanosomes etc) are required.Study should also include life cycles, prevention and control of these parasites.